Tajweed Explained
Tajweed Made Easy!

Blog Post

The Three Ghurar

The Three Ghurar

Tilāwah: Sūrah al-ʾInsān / Sūrah al-Dahr
Riwāyah: Warsh ʿan Nāfiʿ (al-Azraq)

(Note: Keep Sūrah al-ʾInsān open in your miṣrī qurʾān while reading this article | The article contains links to audio clips)

Warashān or the wood pigeon is a bird that migrates from Europe to the Levant but avoids Egypt in its path of migration. However, Egypt did get a warashān in the form of Warsh, originally named Abu Saʿīd ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd and nicknamed Warashān by Nāfiʿ – which was eventually shortened to Warsh – from whom he narrated the popular reading today known as the narration of “Warsh ʿan Nāfiʿ”.
In present times, the narration of Warsh – who was an Egyptian himself – is popular in Egypt and is the predominant reading of the Qur’an in North Africa and parts of Sudan.
The riwāyah of Warsh from the ṭarīq of al-Azraq is characterized by the naql al-ḥarakah, the tarqīq of the letter rāʾ and taqlīl, among other things.

Shehzada Husain Bhaisaheb Burhanuddin Saheb (DM) delivered an exquisite recitation today in this beautiful ṭarīq leaving the audience wanting for more. Shehzada Saheb’s voice was warm with a heavy base, lustrous like silk and very smooth. The istiʿādhah and basmalah were enough to elicit vocal applause from the audience which appeared as eager to listen to the recitation as a thirsty bird that sights water.
The initial few verses of Sūrah al-ʾInsān were recited in the narration of Ḥafṣ. Then Shehzada Saheb (DM) began reciting the Sūrah in Warsh again, finishing off the first verse with a madd al-līn in the word (شيئا) giving out the early indications of the Warsh narration.

Let’s now closely discuss the three prominent aḥkām of Warsh: (1) Naql, (2) Tarqīq of Rāʾ and (3) Taqlīl
1. Naql is when the ḥarakah (a zayr, a zabar or a paish) on a hamzah al-taḥqīq (a fancy name for an alif having zabar, zayr or pesh – e.g. الإٍنسان) is transferred to the silent letter (sākin) before it. So, the silent letter before the hamzah in al-Insān is the letter لام and therefore, when naql is applied to al-Insān, the word becomes “linsān” and consequently, the phrase (على الإٍنسان) is recited as (and I transliterate): ʿAla-linsāni.
2. Tarqīq / Tafkhīm of Rāʾ: The rāʾ has detailed rules with regard to its tafkhīm (heavy) and tarqīq (light) pronunciations. However, let’s discuss some of the ones that distinguish Warsh from Ḥafṣ.
  • Firstly, and you might find it intriguing, Warsh pronounces the letter rāʾ with tarqīq even if the letter itself is maftūḥ (marked with a zabar) or maḍmūm (marked with a paish); however, the condition is that such rāʾ’s must be preceded with a permanent zayr i.e. a zayr which is naturally part of a word and is not enforced, e.g عاقِرا (ʿāqirā).
  • Secondly, the letter rāʾ, if occurring in a non-Arab name, is recited with tafkhīm even if rules of tarqīq are applicable. These non-Arab names are Ibrahim, Imran, Israil and Iram.
  • Thirdly, the first instance of the letter rāʾ in the word بِشَرَرٍ is recited with tarqīq as an exception.
3. Taqlīl: This is also referred to as the imālah sughrā (i.e. the lesser imālah). You may be aware of the imālah in Ḥafṣ for the rāʾ in the word majraehā (مجرىها) where the madd of alif is recited slanting towards the madd of yāʾ (listen to the imālah here). Taqlīl is when imālah is reduced by almost half. Warsh applies optional taqlīl whenever a word contains an alif written with a yāʾ e.g. الهدى، الهوى، التقوى. However, Warsh performs a compulsory taqlīl when an alif at the end of a word occurs after the letter rāʾ e.g. النصارى، اشترى. Additionally, Warsh recites the word الكافرين or كافرين with taqlīl.

Returning to the recitation, Shehzada Saheb (DM) illustrated a fine example of taqlīl in the word لقىهم (laqqāhum) by maintaining a slight degree of tafkhīm on qāf and still pronouncing the taqlīl.
The twenty-first and twenty-second verses were recited beautifully with subtle tonal movements adorning the longer as well shorter elongations culminating in a sophisticated bayātī amidst delicate intonations of ṣabā and ʿajam.

The following two verses were a high point in the recitation with Shehzada Saheb (DM) choosing to recite, in the first instance, with the reading of Ibn Kathīr and in the second instance with the reading of al-Sūsī ʿan Abū ʿAmr.
In these two verses, Ibn Kathīr recites the word “al-Qurʾān” with naql, pronouncing it as “al-Qurān”. Furthermore, the mīm of plurality in the word منهم (minhum) is pronounced with a ṣilah (minhumū).
In the case of al-Sūsī narrating from Abū ʿAmr, the two consecutive nūn in نحن نزلنا are assimilated through idghām thereby, eliminating the vowel of paish from the first nūn and making it silent. Similarly, al-Sūsī assimilated the rāʾ in the word فاصبر into the successive lām turning the phrase into faṣbil-liḥukmi.

This recitation evoked old memories of Shehzada Saheb (DM)’s ḥaflah in the town of Marol at the Hasanat High School Ground where the audience had been fortunate to listen to the same Sūrah recited with unparalleled intensity. Today, we heard it adorned with an exquisite layer of Warsh added on top.

The first recitation of this year’s Ashara Mubaraka has marked the beginning of promising expectations for those interested in the art of tajweed.
May Allah Taʿālā grant al-Dai al-Ajal Syedna Aali Qadr Mufaddal Saifuddin a long and healthy life till the day of judgement. Ameen.
  • Sh Shabbir sadik ali ezzy karachi wala Surat Jamea 2:31 pm 01/09/2019 Reply

    استفدت في معرفة القراة

  • Dr. Cumel Baskets 4:00 pm 01/09/2019 Reply

    We listen to shz saheb’s qiraat engrossed deeply, preoccupied with the notion that tajweedxplained will be charging up for us to highlight the eloborate technicalities of the ashara qirats.

    Keep cooing like the melodious, warashan of tajweed ul quran in these days of mourning.

    Had never imagined that the science of tajweed could be so intricate and well framed.

  • Huzaofa Aliasger 4:34 pm 01/09/2019 Reply

    The article is very informative for those who know basics of hafs. This article has intrgued me to know more about the different qira’ats of Al Qur’an.

  • Murtaza 1:44 am 02/09/2019 Reply

    i have a question.
    how is madd e leen on shaiya an indication of warsh an naafe.
    don’t all qurra do madd e leen?

    • Taha 1:49 am 02/09/2019 Reply

      W af Salam,

      Of course – you’re absolutely right. However, al-Azraq has chosen to recite the “yaa” of “shai’aa” using tawassut (4 harakaat) or ishbaa’ (6 harakaat) as a matter of principle. Therefore, the distinction lies here.

  • Munira mustafa jivajee 5:29 am 02/09/2019 Reply

    Plz can u give tajweed lesson in lisanuddawat.

    • Fatema hasnain shajapur wala 10:36 am 02/09/2019 Reply

      Having difficulty understanding in English
      Please send it in LSD. Really want to understand it

  • Mulla Murtaza Paris 9:21 am 02/09/2019 Reply

    ممتاز جدا
    Très intéressant

    • Shk Mohammed Poonawala 4:41 am 04/09/2019 Reply

      Keep up the good work. JAZAKALLAH

  • Sakina Mohamed 10:04 am 02/09/2019 Reply

    It would be really nice to read these in lsd

  • Ammar Amjawala 10:14 am 02/09/2019 Reply

    “Tajweed Made Easy” Indeed.

  • Burhanuddin rangwala 3:09 pm 02/09/2019 Reply

    It is awesome and clearly this is lots of hard work

    • Husain Raghib 4:57 pm 02/09/2019 Reply

      Mane kai tajweed nu knowledge nathi but ghanuj fine lage 6 ane ehvu fill thay 6 k sunaj kariye

Write a comment