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The Madd and the Qaṣr

6th Muharram al-Harām 1443 AH

Tilāwah: Al-Fat-ḥ 27 – 29, al-Takwīr

Qirāʾah: Multiple

Today’s recitation was a perfect rendering of what would have been the seven letters of the Qur’an which were revealed to our beloved Nabī Muḥammad SAW. The Qārī seamlessly transitioned through multiple readings and, in certain places, evoked strong emotions of sorrow. The recitation began with a multiple recitation of the first part of Verse 27 of Sūrah al-Fat-ḥ, covering the readings of Ḥafṣ, al-Sūsī ʿan Abi Amr, Abū Jaʿfar and al-Kisāʾī. The reading of Ḥafṣ, al-Sūsī and Warsh featured repeatedly throughout the recitation. The farsh also included the readings of Shuʿbah, Ibn Ẓakwān and Qunbul. The recitation was strong and emotional, and built upon the various iterations of bayātī and rast. After the Sūrah al-Fat-ḥ, the Qārī proceeded to recite the Sūrah al-Takwīr in full. The recitation was replete with the various khilāfāt of the Ten Recitations. This article will discuss some notable aspects thereof.

Some aḥkām from today’s recitation:

1. al-Idghām al-Ṣaghīr: While the idghām ṣaghīr of nūn is well-known, there are instances where other Qurrāʾ perform the idghām ṣaghīr in other letter-combinations. Today, the idghām ṣaghīr was performed in (لقد صدق الله), for the letters dāl and ṣād.

2. al-Idghām al-Kabīr: The idghām kabīr is when two mutaḥarrik letters are mixed, as shown on our Instagram channel. Today, the idghām kabīr of al-Sūsī was performed in multiple places, such as (ارسل رسوله), (فعلم ما), (الغيب بضنين).

Some farsh and uṣūl from today’s recitation:

لقد صَّدَقلقدْ صَدق
Abū ʿAmr, Hishām, Ḥamzah, ʿAlī, KhalafThe Rest
Abū JaʿfarAl-SūsīThe Rest
ShuʿbahThe Rest
Ibn ẒakwānThe Rest
سُؤْقه | سئُوْقهسُوقه
QunbulThe Rest
Ibn Kathīr, Abū ʿAmr, YaʿqūbThe Rest
Abū JaʿfarThe Rest
Warsh: TaqlīlḤamzah, al-Kisāʾī, Khalaf: ImālahAbū ʿAmr: Imālah on hamzah
Ibn Kathīr, Abū ʿAmr, al-Kisāʾī, RuwaysThe Rest

The Uṣūl

This article discusses about the madd and qaṣr preferences of the various Qurrāʾ.

Madd is when the letters of madd are elongated for 4, 5 or 6 ḥarakāt. Qaṣr is when an instance of madd is reduced to an elongation of 2 ḥarakāt only. There are various types of madd which occur due to various reasons. Some of these madds are discussed below along with the preference of the Reciters for them from the Shāṭibiyah path.

Madd al-Munfaṣil

  • Qālūn and Dūrī of Abū ʿAmr: Qaṣr (2 ḥarakat), Tawassut (4 or 5 ḥarakat)
  • Al-Sūsī and Ibn Kathīr: Qaṣr only.
  • Warsh and Ḥamzah: Ishbāʿ (6 ḥarakat)
  • Ibn ʿĀmir, ʿĀṣim, al-Kisāʾī: Tawassut only.

Madd al-Muttaṣil:

  • Warsh and Ḥamzah: Ishbāʿ (6 ḥarakat)
  • Rest: Tawassut only

Madd al-Badal

  • Warsh: Qaṣr, Tawassut, Ishbāʿ (with certain exceptions)
  • Rest: Qaṣr
  • Dr Shk Shoeb baramati wala 5:35 pm 14/08/2021 Reply

    Nicely explained.

  • Husain Bootwala 5:43 pm 14/08/2021 Reply

    Awesome 👌

  • Mustafa Kanchwala 6:08 pm 14/08/2021 Reply

    Superb eloborate

  • Moiz Dhansura 4:42 pm 15/08/2021 Reply

    Can’t we get the audio aswell to get a better understanding

  • M. Mufaddal Haryanawala 5:05 pm 15/08/2021 Reply

    Very well explained

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