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The lām of هل and بل

8th Muharram al-Harām 1443 AH

Tilāwah: al-Ḥashr 18 – 24, al-Ghāshiyah: 8 – 26

Riwāyah: Multiple, including Warsh, Ḥafṣ, Abū Jaʿfar and Ibn Kathīr

As the manẓar of Ḥashr draws closer, the final verses of Sūrah al-Ḥashr strike a deep-seated emotion in the hearts of mumineen who shall witness the Dāʿī of al-Imām al-Ḥusayn narrate the calamity that befell the Ahl-e-Bayt in Karbala and Shām. Today’s recitation of these verses, especially in the maqam of Ḥijāz, evoked heavy emotions that reminded the audience of that very manẓar. The names of AllāhTA, which are known to the people of faith, were recited with a richness of voice and depth of meaning. The recitation made it clear that the mumineen were the people of Jannah; those who had victory on their side. The recitation of Sūrah al-Ḥashr was followed by that of Sūrah al-Ghāshiyah. One could hear the ṣilat of Ibn Kathīr, the taqlīl of Warsh, the imālah of Khalaf, the ikhfāʾ on al-khāʾ of Abū Jaʿfar and several other features of various Qurrāʾ. It was a recitation which was truly representative of the “Ten Readings”.

Some aḥkām of today’s recitation:

Ṣilat of Ibn Kathīr: Ibn Kathīr performs the ṣilat not only on the hāʾ al-kināyah but also on the mīm al-jamʿ. Examples include: (فأنساهمُ أنفسهم)

The ikhfāʾ on the letter khāʾ: Abū Jaʿfar performs the ikhfāʾ of nūn when it precedes the khāʾ. He is the only one to do so. (من خشية)

Saktah: Ḥamzah performs the saktah on the hamzah al-qatʿ when it occurs at the beginning of a word after an alif-lām combination. (له الأسماء)

Some farsh from today’s recitation:

Ibn KathīrThe rest
Qālūn, Abū ʿAmr, al-Kisāʾī, Abū JaʿfarThe rest
NāfiʿAbū ʿAmr, Ibn Kathīr, RuwaysThe rest
بمصيطر (اشمام الصاد زايا)بمصيطر
KhalafThe rest
Abū JaʿfarThe rest

The Uṣūl

This article discusses the Shatibiya rules regarding the lām of the words (هل) and (بل) wherever they occur in the Qur’an with respect to the letter that comes after such lām. The differences among the Qurrāʾ occur with regard to eight letters which can be classified into three types:

1. The letter thāʾ (ثاء) which occurs after the lām of hal: (هل ثوب الكفار)

2. The following five letters (الضاد، الظاء، الطاء، الزاي، السين) occurring after the lām of bal whose examples are as follows:

بل ضلوابل ظننتمبل طبعبل زينبل سولت

3. The two letters (النون) and (التاء) occurring after both, the lām of bal and hal:

بل نتبعبل تأتيهمهل ندلكمهل تعلم

The differences among the Qurrāʾ are as follows:

1. al-Kisāʾī performs the idghām of the lām of bal and hal in all eight letters.

2. Ḥamzah performs the idghām of the lām of bal in the letter sīn, the lām of hal in the letter thāʾ and the lām of bal and hal in the letter tāʾ.

3. Abū ʿAmr performs the idghām in the two following instances only:

هل ترى من فطورفهل ترى لهم من باقية

4. With the exception of the letters nūn and ḍāḍ with respect to the lām of bal, and the lone following instance: (أم هل تستوي الظلمات والنور) with respect to the lām of hal, Hishām performs the idghām in all letters for both words.

5. The rest i.e., Nāfiʿ, Ibn Kathīr, Ibn Zakwān and ʿĀṣim do not perform the idghām in any of these letters.

  • Dr Shk Shoeb Baramati wala 8:33 am 17/08/2021 Reply

    Nicely explained

  • Sakina Quaid Johar 12:47 pm 19/08/2021 Reply

    Tajweed explained nicely but Shehzada Saheb ni qiraat sunye Kai tarah, ye daily qiraat sunwa no option bhi howo joye talbulilm per.

  • hakimuddin 5:02 pm 19/08/2021 Reply

    want to understand, but can’t

    can u plz type in dawat if possiboe

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