The lām of هل and بل
8th Muharram al-Harām 1443 AH
Tilāwah: al-Ḥashr 18 – 24, al-Ghāshiyah: 8 – 26
Riwāyah: Multiple, including Warsh, Ḥafṣ, Abū Jaʿfar and Ibn Kathīr
As the manẓar of Ḥashr draws closer, the final verses of Sūrah al-Ḥashr strike a deep-seated emotion in the hearts of mumineen who shall witness the Dāʿī of al-Imām al-Ḥusayn narrate the calamity that befell the Ahl-e-Bayt in Karbala and Shām. Today’s recitation of these verses, especially in the maqam of Ḥijāz, evoked heavy emotions that reminded the audience of that very manẓar. The names of AllāhTA, which are known to the people of faith, were recited with a richness of voice and depth of meaning. The recitation made it clear that the mumineen were the people of Jannah; those who had victory on their side. The recitation of Sūrah al-Ḥashr was followed by that of Sūrah al-Ghāshiyah. One could hear the ṣilat of Ibn Kathīr, the taqlīl of Warsh, the imālah of Khalaf, the ikhfāʾ on al-khāʾ of Abū Jaʿfar and several other features of various Qurrāʾ. It was a recitation which was truly representative of the “Ten Readings”.
Some aḥkām of today’s recitation:
Ṣilat of Ibn Kathīr: Ibn Kathīr performs the ṣilat not only on the hāʾ al-kināyah but also on the mīm al-jamʿ. Examples include: (فأنساهمُ أنفسهم)
The ikhfāʾ on the letter khāʾ: Abū Jaʿfar performs the ikhfāʾ of nūn when it precedes the khāʾ. He is the only one to do so. (من خشية)
Saktah: Ḥamzah performs the saktah on the hamzah al-qatʿ when it occurs at the beginning of a word after an alif-lām combination. (له الأسماء)
Some farsh from today’s recitation:
|Ibn Kathīr||The rest|
|Qālūn, Abū ʿAmr, al-Kisāʾī, Abū Jaʿfar||The rest|
|Nāfiʿ||Abū ʿAmr, Ibn Kathīr, Ruways||The rest|
|بمصيطر (اشمام الصاد زايا)||بمصيطر|
|Abū Jaʿfar||The rest|
This article discusses the Shatibiya rules regarding the lām of the words (هل) and (بل) wherever they occur in the Qur’an with respect to the letter that comes after such lām. The differences among the Qurrāʾ occur with regard to eight letters which can be classified into three types:
1. The letter thāʾ (ثاء) which occurs after the lām of hal: (هل ثوب الكفار)
2. The following five letters (الضاد، الظاء، الطاء، الزاي، السين) occurring after the lām of bal whose examples are as follows:
|بل ضلوا||بل ظننتم||بل طبع||بل زين||بل سولت|
3. The two letters (النون) and (التاء) occurring after both, the lām of bal and hal:
|بل نتبع||بل تأتيهم||هل ندلكم||هل تعلم|
The differences among the Qurrāʾ are as follows:
1. al-Kisāʾī performs the idghām of the lām of bal and hal in all eight letters.
2. Ḥamzah performs the idghām of the lām of bal in the letter sīn, the lām of hal in the letter thāʾ and the lām of bal and hal in the letter tāʾ.
3. Abū ʿAmr performs the idghām in the two following instances only:
|هل ترى من فطور||فهل ترى لهم من باقية|
4. With the exception of the letters nūn and ḍāḍ with respect to the lām of bal, and the lone following instance: (أم هل تستوي الظلمات والنور) with respect to the lām of hal, Hishām performs the idghām in all letters for both words.
5. The rest i.e., Nāfiʿ, Ibn Kathīr, Ibn Zakwān and ʿĀṣim do not perform the idghām in any of these letters.