The Hāʾ of Kināyah
5th Muharram al-Harām 1443 AH
Tilāwah: Maryam 1 – 32
Qirāʾah: Ḥafṣ, Abū Jaʿfar, Warsh, al-Sūsī, Abū ʿAmr
It comes as no surprise that the recitation of Sūrah Maryam caused the Negus to weep; after all, while the mufassirūn talk about rumūz in the Shatibiyah and Durrah compositions, they – perhaps conveniently – forget the much more essential rumūz which, thankfully, are disclosed to us by Awliya KirāmAS. Had the Negus been alive, today’s recitation – taking place in his homeland – would have certainly caused him to weep. Commencing with the kāf hā yā ʿayn ṣād letters in all of their iterations i.e., with the imālah, taqlīl and saktah, the recitation proceeded in the narration of Warsh with the maqāmāt of rast and bayātī gaining prominence in alternate fashion. It was quite an amazing sight watching the Qārī handling the various intricacies of the different qirāʾāt with deft and finesse. The recitation often ventured into Ḥafṣ and adopted qaṣr instead of Shatibiyah’s elongation of the munfaṣil. Much of the recitation rested on high notes given the nature of the verses being recited.
Some aḥkām from today’s recitation:
1. Verse 1: The first verse of the Sūrah was recited thrice, the first time in Ḥafṣ, the second time in Abū ʿAmr with the imālah on the letter hāʾ and the third time in Abū Jaʿfar with the saktah on each letter, the latter being part of farsh but included here for the sake of consistency.
2. Tarqīq: Given that most of the recitation was in Warsh, the rules of the letter rāʾ’s tarqīq were applicable throughout (ex. عاقرا)
3. Badal: Similarly, badal, being an integral feature of Warsh was repeated several times. A notable instance was the badal in the word (وراءي).
4. Ṣilat of the Mīm of Plurality: Warsh elongates the mīm of plurality when it occurs before a hamzah al-qatʿ as in (إليهم أن).
5. The tas-hīl of hamzah: Nāfiʿ performs the tas-hīl of the second hamzah in the phrase (زكرياء إنا).
6. Naql: Again, naql was a common feature in today’s qira’at given that Warsh was the dominant reading today (ex. ولم اكن – من ءال يعقوب).
The farsh of today’s recitation:
|يرثْني ويرثْ||يرثُني ويرثُ|
|Abū ʿAmr and al-Kisāʾī||The rest|
|Ḥafṣ, Ḥamzah, al-Kisāʾī, Khalaf||The rest|
|Ḥafṣ, Ḥamzah, al-Kisāʾī||The rest|
|Abū ʿAmr, Yaʿqūb, Warsh, Qālūn (Khulf)||The rest|
|Nāfiʿ, Ḥafṣ, Ḥamzah, al-Kisāʾī, Khalaf||The rest|
|Ḥafṣ, Ḥamzah||The rest|
|مَن تحتَها||مِن تحتِها|
|Ibn Kathīr, Abū ʿAmr, Ibn ʿĀmir, Shuʿbah, Ruways||The rest|
This article briefly discusses the hāʾ al-kināyah and the features of the various qurrāʾ in this regard. The hāʾ al-kināyah or the hāʾ al-ḍamīr is a letter hāʾ that always occurs at the end of a given word and works as a third-person singular pronoun. It may be either masculine or feminine. However, the differences among qurrāʾ are only with regard to the masculine and not the feminine.
As a general rule, all qurrāʾ elongate the hāʾ al-kināyah when it occurs between two mutaḥarrik letters, and perform qaṣr when it occurs between a sākin and a mutaḥarrik (this rule comes with exceptions).
However, Ibn Kathīr alone elongates the hāʾ al-kināyah whenever it occurs between a sākin and a mutaḥarrik. Ḥafṣ concurs with Ibn Kathīr only in one instance – (فيه مهانا).
There are other instances of specific words where the various qurrāʾ have chosen to recite the hāʾ al-kināyah with a jazm (sukūn).