Glossary

A glossary of Tajweed terms.

AhkaamالأحكامShort for aḥkām al-tajwīd (Rules of Tajweed). See Tajweed for more details.
BasmalahالبسملةThe opening phrase of Bismilla-hirrahma-nirrahim.
Hafs ʿan ʿĀṣimحفص عن عاصمOne of the ten authentic Qur’anic readings that has been transmitted from ʿĀṣim through Ḥafṣ. This is the most widely used Qur’anic reading in the Islamic world today.
IshmamالإشمامLiterally, to cause something or someone to take in a hint of smell. In Tajweed, it means to add a hint of a harakah or another letter to an existing letter so as to denote a particular action taking place on that letter. For example: (1) Keeping the lips in the position of wāw while articulating the letter noon in the word تامنا to hint towards the ḍammah in the first noon. (2) Articulating the letter ṣād from the area immediately behind the lips instead of its original makhraj in order to add a hint of the letter zāy to the letter ṣād.
IstiʿādhahالإستعاذةThe phrase recited before the basmalah at the time of beginning a Qur’anic recitation.
Khalaf ʿan Ḥamzahخلف عن حمزةOne of the ten authentic Qur’anic readings that has been transmitted from Ḥamzah through Khalaf.
MakharijالمخارجShort for makhārij al-ḥurūf, the emission points from which each of the 28 letters of Arabic are pronounced. There are five main “exits” viz. mouth, tongue, throat, lips and nose. 
MaqamالمقامMaqam is the system of melodic modes used in traditional Arabic music, which is mainly melodic. The word maqam in Arabic means place, location or position. The Arabic maqam is a melody type. It is “a technique of improvisation” that defines the pitches, patterns, and development of a piece of music and which is “unique to Arabian art music”. Reciters of the Qur’an have long employed the maqamaat in Qur’anic recitations.
Naql al-Ḥarakahنقل الحركةThe passing of a harakah by skipping to the subsequent letter.
ReadingsالقراءاتThe ten authentic readings of the Qur’an as compiled by al-Shatibi and al-Jazari.
SaktahالسكتةA breathless pause.
TajweedالتجويدSee last paragraph of “The Victory”
TarteelالترتيلSee last paragraph of “The Victory”
TasdeeqالتصديقThe closing phrase of a Qur’anic recitation. 
TilawahالتلاوةA Qur’anic recitation.
WaqfالوقفA stoppage during the recitation. Plural: wuqūf. Stoppages are of several kinds – complete, good, undesirable etc.